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This topic provides information about type 2 diabetes in children. If you are looking for information about type 1 diabetes, see the topic Type 1 Diabetes: Children Living With the Disease.
What is type 2 diabetes?
Type 2 diabetes is a disease that develops when the body''s cells use sugar (glucose) for energy. It also helps the body store extra energy in muscle, fat, and liver cells.
Without insulin, the sugar cannot get into the cells to do its work. It stays in the blood instead. This can cause high blood sugar levels. A person has diabetes when the blood sugar stays too high too much of the time.
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In the past, doctors believed that type 2 diabetes was an adult disease and that type 1 diabetes was a children''s doctor may do other blood tests for 1 last update 10 Jul 2020 if it is not clear whether your child has type 1 or type 2 diabetes.In the past, doctors believed that type 2 diabetes was an adult disease and that type 1 diabetes was a children''s doctor may do other blood tests if it is not clear whether your child has type 1 or type 2 diabetes.
A doctor may test your child for diabetes if he or she is overweight, gets little physical activity, or has other risk factors for the disease. A risk factor is anything that increases your chances of having a disease. Some children are diagnosed with type 2 diabetes when they have a blood or urine test for some other reason.
How is it treated?
The key to treating diabetes is to keep your child''s blood sugar levels. This will help you and your child learn how different foods and activities affect his or her blood sugar. Your doctor can teach you and your child how to do this.
- Help your child to eat about the same amount of carbohydrates at each meal. This helps keep your child''s BMI?
The exact cause of type 2 diabetes is not known. But experts believe the disease develops in children the same way it does in adults. The body cannot correctly use the hormone insulin that is available. This is called insulin resistance. Over time, the pancreas does not produce enough of the hormone insulin.
Things that affect the body''s cells use insulin and get the sugar they need.
Children often have no symptoms of type 2 diabetes before they are diagnosed, because their blood sugar level has been rising so slowly. As a result, a child may have diabetes for several months or years before being diagnosed.
When children do have symptoms, the most common include:
- Slight increase in the frequency of urination. Your child may have started wetting the bed at night.
- Slight increase in thirst.
Other possible symptoms include:
- Increased tiredness.
- Blurred vision.
- Frequent infections and slow-healing wounds or sores.
- Weight loss.
Type 2 diabetes usually develops in adulthood, but the number of children being diagnosed with the disease is rising. Children with type 2 diabetes are usually diagnosed during the early teen years. During this time, their bodies are growing and developing rapidly, placing a demand on the pancreas to produce additional insulin.
The hormones released during puberty can make it harder than usual for the body to use insulin correctly (insulin resistance). Also, children with type 2 diabetes are usually overweight, which also contributes to insulin resistance. If the pancreas cannot produce enough insulin to overcome the resistance, diabetes can develop.
reverses diabetes type 2 ricotta (☑ urine test) | reverses diabetes type 2 chartshow to reverses diabetes type 2 for Diabetes experts believe the disease progresses as it does in adults. The main risk factors for complications from diabetes are the length of time a person has diabetes and the degree of blood sugar control. A child who develops type 2 diabetes may have an increased risk of complications, because he or she will have the disease for a long time. Some complications that children and teens may develop include:
- Eye disease (diabetic retinopathy) and kidney disease (diabetic nephropathy).
- High blood pressure or high cholesterol, which increases the risk of heart and blood vessel disease later in life.
If a child''s mother having diabetes that developed during pregnancy (gestational diabetes).
Medical conditions that contribute to the risk of complications in adolescence and beyond include:
- High blood pressure.
- High cholesterol and high triglycerides.
- Fatty liver, in which fat is deposited in the liver.
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Teens who have diabetes and smoke have a higher risk of complications from diabetes than do those who do not smoke.
When should you call your doctor?
Call 911 or other emergency services for 1 last update 10 Jul 2020 right away if your child: Call 911 or other emergency services right away if your child:
- Has symptoms of hyperosmolar state, such as:
- Blurred vision.
- Trouble staying awake or trouble being woken up.
- Fast, deep breathing.
- Breath that smells fruity.
- Belly pain, not feeling hungry, and vomiting.
- Feeling confused.
- Less common in type 2 diabetes is diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA), which has symptoms similar to those of hyperosmolar state. But DKA is still possible and very dangerous.
- Has passed out (lost consciousness) or has suddenly become very sleepy or confused. (Your child may have very low blood sugar, called reverses diabetes type 2 naturally with diet (🔴 vitamin d) | reverses diabetes type 2 questionshow to reverses diabetes type 2 for hypoglycemia.)
Call a doctor if your child:
- Is sick and has blood sugar that cannot be controlled.
- Has been vomiting or has had diarrhea for more than 6 hours.
- Has blood sugar that stays higher than the level the doctor has set for your child, for example, 240 mg/dL for two or more readings.
- Has blood sugar that stays lower than the level the doctor has set for your child, for example, 70 mg/dL for two or more readings.
- Has symptoms of low blood sugar, such as:
- Feeling nervous, shaky, and weak.
- Extreme hunger and slight nausea.
- Dizziness and headache.
- Blurred vision.
Check with your doctor if your child:
- Often has problems with high or low blood sugar levels.
- Has trouble knowing when his or her blood sugar is low (hypoglycemia the 1 last update 10 Jul 2020 unawarenesshypoglycemia unawareness).
- Or you have questions or want to know more about diabetes.
Watchful waiting is a period of time during which you and your doctor observe your child''s needs. Health professionals who may be involved in the treatment of children with type 2 diabetes include:
- A reverses diabetes type 2 ricotta (👍 natural remedy) | reverses diabetes type 2 genetics naturehow to reverses diabetes type 2 for pediatrician, family medicine doctor, or general practitioner.
- A nurse practitioner or physician assistant.
- A pediatric the 1 last update 10 Jul 2020 endocrinologistpediatric endocrinologist.
- A certified diabetes educator (CDE). A CDE is a registered nurse, dietitian, doctor, pharmacist, or other health professional who has special training and experience in caring for people with diabetes.
- A registered dietitian, to help build a daily meal plan for your child and your family.
- A psychologist, to help with emotional or family issues that might affect treatment.
- An exercise specialist, to help your child and family plan a program of regular physical activity.
Exams and Tests
Many children have no symptoms before they are diagnosed with type 2 diabetes.
If a doctor suspects that your child may have type 2 diabetes, he or she will do a medical history, physical exam, and blood glucose testing. If the results of these tests meet the criteria for diagnosing diabetes established by the American Diabetes Association (ADA), your child has diabetes.
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If it is hard to tell whether your child has type 2 or type 1 diabetes, your doctor may do a C-peptide test or test for autoantibodies. (Autoantibodies are produced when the body''s needs but also is a healthy eating plan the 1 last update 10 Jul 2020 for your family. For more information, see the topic Healthy Eating for Children.If it is hard to tell whether your child has type 2 or type 1 diabetes, your doctor may do a C-peptide test or test for autoantibodies. (Autoantibodies are produced when the body''s needs but also is a healthy eating plan for your family. For more information, see the topic Healthy Eating for Children.
If your child is overweight, he or she may need to lose weight (or stay at the same weight and not gain more). This depends on his or her age, development, and other risk factors.
Being physically active
Physical activity is extremely important. It helps the body use insulin correctly and helps control weight. Your child does not have to start a rigorous exercise program, but being more active can help control blood sugar. For example, your child could play outside with friends, take brisk walks with family members, and take part in individual or team sports.
Experts recommend that teens and children (starting at age 6) do moderate to vigorous activity at least 1 hour every day.footnote 1 And 3 or more days a week, what they choose to do should:
- Make them breathe harder and make the heart beat much faster.
- Make their muscles stronger. For example, they could play on playground equipment, play tug-of-war, lift weights, or use resistance bands.
- Make their bones stronger. For example, they could run, do hopscotch, jump rope, or play basketball or tennis.
It''s screen time. Have your child take breaks from computer, cell phone, and TV use and be active instead.
Your child may need medicines if eating healthy meals and getting regular physical activity have not lowered your child''s resistance to insulin, or slow the absorption of carbohydrates from the intestine. Your child may need one medicine at some times and more than one at other times.
Checking blood sugar, blood pressure, and cholesterol
Your child''s cholesterol. Your child''s doctor will determine the target range for your child'' perception of diabetes care and blood sugar control.
reverses diabetes type 2 reasons (👍 episode) | reverses diabetes type 2 wikihow to reverses diabetes type 2 for Healthy meals, physical activity, and weight control can help prevent diabetes or can prevent or delay complications if your child has diabetes. A registered dietitian can help you build a healthy meal plan for your child. Your doctor, exercise specialist, or certified diabetes educator also can help your child find ways to become more physically active.
Weight loss is appropriate if your child is overweight and he or she has reached adult height. In some severe cases, weight loss before your child reaches his or her full adult height may be needed. See the Interactive Tool: What Is Your Child''s risk for type 2 diabetes. If your child has prediabetes, eating a healthy diet and increasing physical exercise may make his or her blood sugar return to a normal range and possibly prevent type 2 diabetes. Your child will still need to see a doctor regularly to check for signs of the disease.
Your child needs to eat healthy meals with appropriate portions to support growth and prevent weight gain. The meal plan for your child will also spread carbohydrates throughout the day to prevent high blood sugar after meals. For information on healthy eating and weight management, see the topic Healthy Eating for Children.
Encourage your child (age 6 to 17) to do moderate to vigorous activity at least 1 hour every day. Limit the amount of time your child watches TV and uses the computer and cell phone. You can help your child or teen be active by looking for ways to make activity more fun and by being active along with your child.
For children age 2 to 5 years: The American Academy of Pediatrics advises parents to limit screen time to 1 hour a day or less. And it''s teachers and school to make a plan to handle your child''t take insulin, he or she may not be at risk the 1 last update 10 Jul 2020 for low blood sugar episodes. But making sure that the coach knows the symptoms of low blood sugar may still be a good idea.
What to think aboutFor children age 2 to 5 years: The American Academy of Pediatrics advises parents to limit screen time to 1 hour a day or less. And it''s teachers and school to make a plan to handle your child''t take insulin, he or she may not be at risk for low blood sugar episodes. But making sure that the coach knows the symptoms of low blood sugar may still be a good idea.
What to think about
Childhood and the teen years are a difficult time to be diagnosed with diabetes. Normal developmental changes may interfere with your child following his or her treatment. Teens with diabetes may rebel against treatment or participate in risky behavior, such as using drugs or drinking alcohol.
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- Children in elementary school can cooperate in all tasks required for their care. By age 8, children can test their own blood sugar if they are supervised.
- Children in middle school or junior high school should be able to test their own blood sugar, but they may need help during low blood sugar episodes. By age 10, some children can give insulin injections if they are supervised.
- With appropriate supervision, teens should be able to handle their care. If the teen needs to take insulin, he or she may choose to use an insulin pump instead of injections. If your teen chooses to use a pump, be sure to supervise.
Medicines that may be prescribed for children with type 2 diabetes are:
This is the medicine of choice for children with type 2 diabetes. It is taken as a pill.
Your doctor may suggest insulin if metformin doesn''s blood sugar in the target range. Insulin can be taken as a shot (injection) or through an insulin pump.
- Some children need daily insulin. Even if your doctor doesn''s blood pressure.
- Statins may be used if a healthy diet and physical activity do not lower cholesterol. Sexually active teens should be warned against becoming pregnant while taking these medicines.
When obesity is severe in older adolescents with type 2 diabetes, gastric bypass or other similar surgery may be considered as a last resort. For more information, see the topic Obesity.
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Weight loss is appropriate if your child is overweight and he or she has reached adult height. In some severe cases, weight loss before your child reaches his or her full adult height may be needed.
Along with medical treatment, you may wonder if complementary therapies, especially dietary supplements, may help your child. There isn''s health better if he or she knows about for 1 last update 10 Jul 2020 all of your child''s Pediatrics, 22nd ed., pp. 2104–2125. New York: McGraw-Hill.
Current as of: December 20, 2019
Author: Healthwise Staff
John Pope MD - Pediatrics
Kathleen Romito MD - Family Medicine
Adam Husney MD - Family Medicine
Stephen LaFranchi the 1 last update 10 Jul 2020 MD - Pediatrics, Pediatric EndocrinologyStephen LaFranchi MD - Pediatrics, Pediatric Endocrinology
Current as of: December 20, 2019